The exhibit chronologically traced the origin of the Mongol people from the pre-history of "Ordos Man" to pre-dynastic, to early dynastic eras, to the great Mongolian Empire unification under Genghis Khan (fourteenth century A.D.), culminating in the expansion of the Mongolian Empire over the Eurasian steppe, Asia, and eastern Europe. The main events in this final phase are as follows:
Temujen (Genghis) is born in the 1160s. While still a child, his father is killed. By his teens, his daring raids against neighbouring tribes have already impressed the Mongols.
Temujen is proclaimed Genghis Khan, ruler of all the Turko-Mongol peoples. Surrounded by his supporters, Khan forges an army, divides his forces into units under like-minded tribal chieftains, setting in motion an army capable of conquering the surrounding world.
Genghis and his army defeat the Tangut kingdom of Xi Xia; the capital of the Jin empire, Zhongdu; and, in 1218, the Kara-Khitai empire. In 1221, a caravan of Khan's traders is executed. When a Mongol ambassador seeking justice is killed, a bloody war ensues with Khan's army slaughtering entire populations.
1226-1227Western Turkistan now belongs to Genghis. He devastates the Xi Xia state. Near the end of the assault on its capital city, Ningxia, an ailing Genghis Khan dies - August 18, 1227. Soldiers transport their dead leader back to Mongolia, killing all those who cross their path. His remains have still not been found.
Genghis' chosen heir, Ogodei, becomes the new khan. He continues where his father left off, completing the conquest of the Jin and forging battle against the Southern Song empire and western Asia. In 1234, Ogodei retires from combat.
The Mongol army invades Russia and Europe. Ogodei dies in December. His widow, Toregene becomes first female regent (1241-1246). Her son, Guyak is elected as next khan but dies in 1248.
Genghis' youngest son, Mongke, is elected khan in 1251. In 1258, Mongke sends his brother to control the Muslim world. All of Baghdad is killed except for the Christians.
On their way to attack the Song city of Hezhou, hundreds, including Mongke, die. In 1260 the Mongols suffer their first major defeat near Ain Jalut against the Mamluks. Kublai becomes their next khan in 1264.
Kublai starts to build a new Chinese capital, Daidu. In 1269, he commissions a Mongol script, based on Tibetan, known as Phags-pa.
Kublai attempts an invasion of Japan on three occasions. On the final attempt most of his 150,000-man army drowns or is killed in battle.
Kublai dies, alone, in 1294. The location of his tomb is a mystery.
The Mongolian empire of Genghis Khan and his line ended in 1368 when the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) came to power.